VI Krutskikh, Y. Pies, RZ Sagdeev
Center for Magnetic Tomography and Spectroscopy
Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov
The problems of the formation of MRI imaging scanner with a strong (3-11 T) and weak (0.1-0.5 T) magnetic fields. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of scanners with different magnetic fields and analyze the main trends of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is shown that does not always increase the magnetic field is a positive factor for improving the quality of MRI images.
Through developed in 2000-2010 in the Center for MRI and Spectroscopy, Moscow State University of new physical and mathematical techniques can provide a signal suppression of normal tissues and to obtain even in weak and medium magnetic fields, refined images of pathological entities that are not visible with conventional MRI methods of observation. The examples of the selective isolation of much tissue MRI imaging of pathologies such as cancers of the brain, spinal cord defects, amyloid plaques in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, morphological abnormalities in the structure of the brain in schizophrenia, damage semicircular rings of the vestibular apparatus, etc.  .
We report the results of experiments in vivo in small animals using magnetic resonance Bio spectral scanner Bruker BioSpec 70/30 URS with the magnetic field 7 T, a warm bore of 300 mm and a spatial resolution of 50 microns. Demonstrates the procedures for imposing and monitoring of transport within the body of drugs, equipped with a paramagnetic label and biomarkers targeted drug delivery in the area of pathology. Examples are data from experiments on rats and mice by treatment of cerebral ischemia caused by the stem cell treatment for cancer nano-encapsulated magnetically controlled drugs, targeted delivery of gadolinium-labeled liposomes in glioma C6 region of the brain, etc. The advantage of the device is able to work BioSpec not only on magnetic resonance of protons, but also in three additional cores - 13C, fluorine and phosphorus, which are part of most biomolecules. The spectral analysis of NMR in these nuclei can simultaneously shoot mode MRI morphological map of the internal organs of the animal and to determine the in vivo molecular composition of tissues observed in voxels with a 3-mm diameter , ie virtually, without surgical intervention to histological identification of tissue.
MRI scanners with strong fields are extremely complex structurally, require cooling by liquid helium and a specially trained service staff have a very high cost (up to EUR 5 million and above) and have a power consumption of tens of kW. Devices with high magnetic fields of 1.5-2 T are needed more for research purposes, especially when studying the cognitive processes of the brain in the mode of functional MRI, but the vast majority of problems of medical diagnostics are successfully solved by means of devices with smaller fields. In recent years, the work on creation of low-field scanners with fields from 0.1 to 0.4 T, which use permanent magnets do not require refrigeration and are maintenance-qualified personnel. Until recently, their drawback is the poor quality of MRI images. In the present report shows the result of the development of fundamentally new low-floor domestic scanner "Unitom" on the permanent ferrite magnet with a field of 0.15 Tesla, the total power consumption of only about 500 W and an estimated cost of no more than 6 million rubles. The main advantage of the MRI scanner is a high quality MRI images, which is comparable with the best 3-Tesla MRI scanner  (figure) ..
The presented results were obtained with grant funding for the state of the RF President for support of leading scientific schools NSH-4593.2008.2 number, government contract Rosnauka № 02.740.11.0230, international grant RFBR № 09-04-92001_NNS_a and grants JSC "Group of Companies" Control "(Director-General in . Krutskikh II).
1. NV Anisimov, YA Pirogov, L. Gubsky, V. Hladun. Contrast control and information technology in magnetic resonance imaging MRI .- Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 2005, 143.
2. AY Yudin, AA Bogdanov (Jr.), Y. Pies. Magnetic resonance imaging in the study of angiogenesis and its molecular markers .- Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 2008, 145.
3. Internet site: http://www.unitom.ru.
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING IN HIGH AND LOW MAGNETIC FIELDS
Krutskikh V.I., Pirogov Yu.A., Sagdeev R.Z.
Center for Magnetic Tomography & Spectroscopy, MVLomonosov Moscow State University
Creation of MRI pictures by high (3-11 T) and low (0.1-0.5 T) field scanners is discussed. It is shown that increasing of magnetic field is not always as a positive factor for enhancement of MRI quality.